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How to transfer a site to another domain: instructions
The question of how to transfer a site to another domain often arises before the "site owners". This may be necessary for a number of reasons. For example, I wanted…

Continue reading →

History of the Internet

The history of the development of the Internet began in 1969, when for the first time it was possible to make communication between computers at the University of California and Stanford. This was a real achievement, because between the two universities there was a distance of about 500 km. The advent of the Internet, however, cannot be called instantaneous. This was preceded by years of labor and scientific research.

The Emergence of the Internet: The Origins
APRA Agency, which later received the status of the creator of a new form of communication, was founded 10 years before the computers of Stanford and the University of California were united into one network. At first, the company was engaged in what would later be called information technology. But in reality, they were still far from real information technologies and could be considered only computational. Data between computers was transmitted using special punched cards, which were very heavy and inconvenient.

A few years later, the company received subsidies from the military and was renamed DAPRA. The availability of free funds allowed the company to expand its activities and expand the field of research for the development of the Internet. The agency got access to military developments. The company has become a control center located between various subordinate departments and technological institutes. Data exchange between the center and departments was difficult due to the fact that the communication was carried out in the old fashion using punch cards. The idea to create the Internet arose precisely with the military. The advent of the Internet would allow you to quickly exchange data on a secure channel and not waste time. Sending punch cards required couriers who were at risk.

Arpanet
The first network was ARPANet. It arose from the already connected computers of Stanford and the University of California. Two computers from other states added to these devices. The advantage of such a network was that there was no longer a host computer: all devices were completely independent. If one of them failed, the others still remained connected.

Prior to the development of ARPANet, such a connection was impossible, because there was always a host computer. If someone incapacitated him, the whole network would be destroyed. This made this communication method not the most reliable.

The further history of the development of the Internet was even more complicated, because the technique itself was not the most perfect. These were more computers than full-fledged computers.

History of the Internet through ARPANet
After the emergence of the opportunity to combine computers into one system, the history of the development of the Internet for some time happened stereotypically. To the existing network all new computers of various universities and technology departments were added. But when communicating between different institutions, serious problems arose. The fact is that in order to “understand” computers needed a certain common language. In those days, devices could run on different software, which created difficulties. So there was a need to create a protocol.

IP came first, and then TCP. the task of the latter was to control the transfer of data between devices. Later, both protocols were combined, and today they work simultaneously.

The appearance of the word “Internet”
Initially, the word “Internet”, which appeared in 1974, meant an internal network that brought together various organizations. The Internet has not yet been so global as to become a hyper network. The term itself belongs to American scientists who decided to give some name to a new form of communication. At that moment, the Internet itself was all the same ARPANet. The network included more than a hundred computers. This was a great achievement, but should not stop. After all, the Internet was just emerging.

Communication between continents
The decisive role in creating a global network was played by satellite communications. The history of the development of the Internet network would probably remain within the same continent, if not for the saving satellite signal, which allowed computers of organizations and individual users from Europe to connect to ARPANet. That moment when the network united the continents and expanded, can be called the beginning of the birth of a full Internet.

Software and internet
It would be wrong to say that the history of the development of the global Internet ended on the unification of continents. The Internet is developing today. In those days, when the network was just taking shape, a variety of phenomena arose. For example, private local networks were created that were protected from extraneous intrusion. Technology still had a lot to go through.

Separately, the development of various programming languages ​​took place. In due time, some of them were in the same fashion as computer games today. From people who were fond of such technologies in their childhood, many programmers and developers grew up, among whom was Bill Gates.

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